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Cite right - concerning academic integrity

A self-study guide from the University Library

Reference list

Your reference list, or your bibliography, is always placed in the end of your paper and should reflect the works you have used and referred to in your text. The main purpose of the reference list is to enable your reader to find and retrieve your sources. The state of your reference list will have an impact on the general appearence of the quality of your paper. It is worth the time to be meticulous and make sure that all references are correct!

There are several different citation styles. Make sure to check with your teacher which style to use on your particular course. Below you can see examples of two common styles used at MDU, APA and IEEE.

Reference management software is used for collecting and organizing references. Click on the link in the margin to reach the library´s guide about the reference management software EndNote, EndNote Basic (formerly EndNote Online) and Mendeley.


The reference list according to APA 7

The references are listed in alphabetical order after the originator, normally by the (first) author's surname. 

Note that the Author names is kept to the right, to make the reading of the bibliography easier. 

Czarniawska-Joerges, B. (1988). Dynamics of organizational control: The case of Berol Kemi AB. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 13(4), 415–430.

Ekstrand, L., & Wallmon, M. (2009). The Thought-Provoking Art of Being a Social Entrepreneur. In M. Gawell, B. Johannisson & M. Lundqvist (Eds.), Entrepreneurship in the Name of Society : Reader’s Digest of a Swedish Research Anthology (1. Ed.). KK-stiftelsen.

Kyriazoglou, J. (2012). Business management controls : a guide. IT Governance Publishing.

Saidi, S. (2015). An exploration of self-care practice and self-care support of patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.. (Doctoral thesis, University of Manchester, Manchester) . Retrieved from


The reference list according to IEEE

The references appear in the list in the order that the material is cited in the text.

[1]   M. Leininger, Transcultural nursing: concepts, theories research and practice, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

[2]   R. Adams and C. Essex, Calculus: a complete course, 8th ed. Toronto: Pearson, 2013.

[3]   B. Czarniawska-Joerges, “Dynamics of organizational control: The case of Berol Kemi AB,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol. 13 nr. 4 ss. 415–430, 1988. Available:

 [4]  L. Ekstrand, and M. Wallmon, “The Thought-Provoking Art of Being a Social Entrepreneur,” in Entrepreneurship in   the Name of Society : Reader’s Digest of a Swedish Research Anthology, M. Gawell, B. Johannisson and M. Lundqvist, Eds. Stockholm: KK-stiftelsen, 2009.


Forming references and reference management