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Health and Welfare – subject guide

Academc writing

Referencing (citing) to previous research will make your own text academic

An important feature of the academic text is that it is produced within a particular context. This context, to be precise, is that what the research on the topic so far has come up with. Your task is to 1) explain this context to your reader and 2) to show in which way your own text relates to the texts of previous research. Practically, you do this by inserting references in your text. A reference consists of two parts: 1) the short in-text reference in your own text and 2) the fully written out reference that must appear in the reference list (bibliography) at the end of your text. The full reference must contain all the bibliographical information that your reader needs to trace your source. The reference list must include all the texts that you have used.


Using reference markers (transitions) is a way of inserting references

Reference markers or transitions are standardized phrases used for inserting references in academic texts. Suggestions on how to formulate a reference marker phrase (transition) can be found in so called phrase banks. Here are two phrase banks published by the universities of Manchester and Michigan State University:

Research method handbooks

Using a research method handbook will give you support both with your research and with your academic writing.